Plant and Animal Protection Specialist Areas

This program area includes pathogens, vectors, chemicals, and animal health issues that affect commodity plants and animals.

Animal Diseases
This area includes work on animal diseases that represent a threat to the production of an adequate and wholesome supply of animal products from livestock, poultry, and fish.
Animal Welfare, Well-Being, and Protection
Work in this area focuses on developing effective animal care and use programs, and information related to and contributing to the welfare, well-being, and proper stewardship of food animals.
Biological Control of Pests Affecting Plants
This area focuses on classical, augmentative, or inundative use of natural enemies (including microbial biological control agents) to manage plant pests (pathogens, insects, mites, nematodes, weeds, vertebrates, etc.).
External Parasites and Pests of Animals
This area includes work on pests and external parasites, including insects, ticks, mites, and other parasitic organisms that reduce animal productivity. This area also includes work on more cost effective methods of control.
Insects, Mites, and Other Arthropods Affecting Plants
This area focuses on yield and quality affected by indigenous and exotic insects, mites, and other arthropods (including bees and other pollinators).
Integrated Pest Management Systems
This area focuses on the integration of one or more control tactics into a system for managing single plant pests or pest complexes in an economically, socially, and environmentally sound manner.
Internal Parasites in Animals
This area includes work on internal parasites such as various kinds of worms, flukes, and protozoa. Emphasis is on reducing losses, including those due to mortality, reduced yield and condemnation of meat, feed wastage, and cost of drugs.
Pathogens and Nematodes Affecting Plants
This area focuses on yield and quality affected by indigenous and exotic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses, and other pathogens.
Toxic Chemicals, Poisonous Plants, and Naturally Occurring Toxins and Other Hazards Affecting Animals
This area focuses on reduction of losses in productivity in livestock, poultry, and fish operations due to toxic chemicals, pesticides, poisonous plants, predators, ingestion of metal and other foreign bodies, and other hazards.
Vertebrates, Mollusks, and Other Pests Affecting Plants
This area focuses on yield and quality affected by indigenous and exotic vertebrate pests (including birds and mammals), mollusks (including slugs and snails), and other plant pests.
Weeds Affecting Plants
This area focuses on yield and quality affected by competition from indigenous and exotic weeds, including aquatic weeds and parasitic plants.